Kidney stones

Kidney stones

The kidney acts as a filter for blood, removing waste out products from the body and making urine & helps regulate electrolyte levels. Kidney stones, or renal calculi, are dissolved minerals that form inside your kidneys. It can form in one or both of your kidneys.  They usually consist of Calcium oxalate but may be composed of other compounds. Kidney stone can form in different size. However, they can develop anywhere along your urinary tract, which consists of :

  • Kidneys
  • Ureters
  • Bladder
  • Urethra


Risk factors for kidney stones:

  • Dehydration
  • Diet with high levels of protein, salt, or glucose
  • Low water intake
  • Obesity
  • Hyperparathyroid condition
  • Primary hyperoxaluria
  • Some medication such as diuretics, antiseizure drugs, and calcium-based antacids etc can cause.
  • Heredity


Sign & Symptom of Kidney stones: Sign & symptoms will be depending upon your condition.

  • Persistent pain in the lower back, radiation of pain to belly, groin & gonads
  • Pain when you urinate (Dysuria)
  • Discolored or foul-smelling urine
  • Blood in the urine (Haematuria)
  • Vomiting & Nausea (feeling sick)
  • Frequent need to urinate & urinating small amounts

Blocked ureter and kidney infection:

  • High or low body temperature-fever
  • Feeling very weak or tired
  • Chills and shivering
  • Cloudy, bad-smelling urine & very small amount urinating
  • Diarrhea
Kidney stones
Kidney stones

Diagnosis: Diagnosis of kidney stones is made on the basis of information obtained from the history, physical examination- the location and severity of the pain, urinalysis, and radiographic studies.

  • Lab tests:

-Blood tests: Blood tests may reveal too much calcium or uric acid in your blood.

-Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine to assess kidney functioning


  • Imaging:

-Simple abdominal X-rays

-Computerized tomography (CT)

  • Analysis of passed stones


Treatment: If you Kidney stones is noticed, immediately visit to your specialist doctor. Treatment for kidney stones varies, depending on the type of stone.

Small stones with minimal symptoms:

  • Drink water average of 2-3Litter/daily (normal adult person)
  • Take proper food, maintain doctor given diet chart
  • Medical therapy
  • Pain relievers

Large stones and those that cause symptoms:

  • Lithotripsy- Using sound waves to break up stones
  • Surgery to remove very large stones in the kidney
  • Parathyroid gland surgery
  • Medical therapy



  • Drink daily average of 2-3Litter/daily(normal adult person) water to avoid becoming dehydrated.
  • Proper Diet chart
  • Choose a diet low in salt and animal protein.
  • Increasing citric acid intake; lemon/lime juice is the richest natural source.
  • Moderate calcium intake, limiting sodium intake
  • Avoid vitamin C supplements
  • Say to doctor about the medications you are currently taking





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