Gingivitis & Periodontitis is very common Dental problems, associated with bleeding gum which I have seen in my daily practice. Bleeding gum causes bad breath or a bad smell from the mouth; if you are getting these problems then immediately visit a dentist. If you are having gum bleeding, then it can be cured. An early stage of gum disease causes swelling of the gum & later it can cause pigmentation or black sport on the gum, if not treated that it can cause bleeding gum & then a periodontal problem, loss of a tooth.
Gum Problem or Gingivitis & Periodontitis:
The gum or Gingiva is the supporting & surrounding tooth. Gum disease, also known as Gingivitis & Periodontitis, is an infection of the gums that surround the teeth structure. It is also one of the main causes of bleeding gum & tooth loss among adults. There are two major stages of Gum disease: Gingivitis and Periodontitis. Gum disease can increase the space in between teeth, causing an increasing gap in between teeth. If this problem is untreated it can cause tooth loss.
Causes of Gum disease:
Gum disease can be caused by a number of factors, but poor oral hygiene is the most common cause. Mainly Dental Plaque & Calculus causes Gum problems. Your mouth is full of bacteria that combine with saliva to form a sticky film known as plaque, which builds up on your teeth. This plaque later becomes hard on the tooth, its call Calculus. When you take food or drink high in carbohydrates (sugary or starchy foods), bacteria in plaque turn carbohydrates into the energy they need, producing acid, this acid causes irritation of gums, making them inflamed & gum disease.
What is Dental plaque & Calculus?
Plaque is the soft depositions that form the biofilm adhering to the tooth surface or other hard surface in the oral cavity. Dental Calculus is an adherent, calcified or calcifying mass that forms over the tooth structure & dental appliance. The plaque, later on, becomes dental calculus.
DENTAL PLAQUE= Bacteria + intercellular matrix
Periodontal infections are usually mixed, most often involving anaerobes such as Treponema denticola and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The microaerophile Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans causes a rare form known as localized Juvenile Periodontitis.
Risk factor for gum disease:
- Poor Oral hygiene
- A family history of gum disease
- Age – Gum disease becomes more common in older peoples
- Malnutrition & Vitamins deficiency
- Weakened immune system – HIV and AIDS or certain, Malignancy.
- Chemotherapy & Radiotherapy
- Malocclusion & Traumatic Occlusion
- Hormonal changes in girls/women
Signs & Symptoms of Gingivitis & Periodontitis:
Gum disease generally painless, so be aware of any of the following sign & symptoms:
- Early symptoms will be Swollen & red gum
- Later bleeding gums, dull pain & tenderness
- Gums that move away from the tooth
- Tooth Sensitivity
- Increased Space or gap between teeth, it can cause food impaction & later it may lead to infection & caries.
- Persistent bad breath or bad taste in mouth
- Loose teeth
- Visible or invisible pus surrounding the teeth and gums, periodontal abscess
Prevention of Gum Disease:
- Rinse mouth with water after every food, sometimes use Chlorhexidine mouthwash. Gargle with warm salted water 3-4 times in a day, it generally helps to the infection
- Stick to gentle, twice-daily brushing with a soft bristle or electric brush, and use proper toothpaste. Use a proper toothbrush & toothpaste.
- Use Floss once daily & you can massage the gum with your finger.
- Chewing habit of little hard & fibrous food is a good habit; don’t take always soft or liquid food. If you will chew then blood circulation on the gum will increase & you can get healthy gum. Take a balance diet.
- Avoid Tobacco & Betel nut
- Schedule regular dentist visits for plaque and tartar removal. Every 6-month visit Dentist for scaling treatment, for prevention of gum problem.
- If you are having the orthodontic problem (Malocclusion) you may affect with poor oral hygiene & gum problem; then get the Orthodontic treatment.
Treatments of Gingivitis & Periodontitis:
Antiseptic mouthwashes containing Chlorhexidine are given or a Betadine gargle is recommended. Oral prophylaxis(Scaling) for gum disease or Root planning is needed for Periodontics. For Gingivitis & Periodontists Scaling is the primary & important basic treatment to remove the causative factor Plaque & Calculus. If you have severe gum disease, you may need further treatment, such as periodontal surgery. In some cases, it’s necessary to remove the affected tooth. Commonly Antibiotics like Metronidazole, Doxycycline, and Amoxicillin is used for the condition, a painkiller are used to reduce pain. Take medicine after dentist advice. For severe Periodontal, a problem Surgical Interventions needed: If none of these other gum infection treatments works, your dentist may recommend surgery. There are several surgery options, including a gingivectomy, flap procedure or even a tooth extraction.
Conclusion: Bleeding gum can be cured, don’t neglect it, immediately visit Dentist. Maintain Oral hygiene, at least every year get Scaling treatment, use proper mouthwash, brush twice daily & don’t use a hard brush, the electric brush is also good. Every 6-month visit Dentist for scaling treatment, for prevention of gum problem. I give one suggestion every time don’t eat soft or liquid food, Chewing habit of hard & fibrous food is good for your gum. The habit of Chewing improves the blood circulation in gum, gives you a healthy gum. Don’t take tobacco.